Flat-screen and rotary-screen printing are both characterized by the fact that the printing paste is transferred to the fabric through openings in specially designed screens. The openings on each screen correspond to a pattern and when the printing paste is forced through by means of a squeegee, the desired pattern is reproduced on the fabric. A separate screen is made for each color in the pattern.
One of the advantages of screen printing with screens is that a single image can be scaled upwards or downwards as needed. This means that a business logo or other graphic can be scaled to cover the entire front of a shirt or just a small area over a pocket.
Screen printing can be divided into various types according to its layout, print type, ink properties and substrate type, but the printing methods can be classified into the following types.
1. Flat screen printing: A flat screen printing machine is a method of printing on a flat substrate using a planar version. When printing, fix the plate and move the offset plate.
2. Flat screen curved screen printing: Flat screen curved screen printing is a method of printing on curved substrates (such as balls, cylinders, cylinders, etc.). During printing, the squeegee is fixed, the slab moves in the horizontal direction, and the substrate rotates with the slab.
Circular screen printing: rotary screen printing is a cylindrical screen printing system. The cylinder is provided with a fixed squeegee, and the cylindrical printing plate is synchronized with the substrate to form a line speed moving printing method.
4. Indirect screen printing: The first three methods directly print the substrate from the printing plate, but only print some regular geometric shapes, such as plane, cylindrical surface, conical surface, etc., for complex shapes, angles and concave surfaces for surfaces. - Molded objects must be printed by indirect screen printing. The process usually consists of two parts: flat screen printing and transfer, ie the screen printed image is not printed directly on the substrate, but is printed first. On a flat material, it is transferred to the substrate by some method. One of the methods of indirect printing is to first print an image on a flat glass by flat screen printing, and then use an elastic silicone head to punch an ink image from the glass and then transfer it to the profile. Surface: Another indirect screen printing is transfer paper, such as: screen printing paper + thermal transfer, screen printing paper + pressure sensitive transfer, screen printing paper + solvent activated transfer. Indirect screen printing has become a major area of the printing industry.
Flat Screen Printing Machine
Flat-screen printing machines can be manual, semi-automatic or completely automatic. One type of machine, which is still commonly found in printing houses, can be described as follows. The fabric is first glued to a moving endless belt. A stationary screen at the front of the machine, is lowered onto the area that has to be printed and the printing paste is wiped with a squeegee. Afterwards the belt, with the fabric glued on it, is advanced to the pattern-repeat point and the screen is lowered again. The printed fabric moves forward step by step and passes through a dryer. The machine prints only one color at a time. When the first color is printed on the whole length of the fabric, the dried fabric is ready for the second cycle and so on until the pattern is completed.
Advantages of Flat Screen Textile Printing
In other fully mechanized machines all the colors are printed at the same time. A number of stationary screens (from 8 to 12, but some machines are equipped with up to 24 different screens) are placed along the printing machine. The screens are simultaneously lifted, while the textile, which is glued to a moving endless rubber belt, is advanced to the pattern-repeat point. Then the screens are lowered again and the paste is squeezed through the screens onto the fabric. The printed material moves forward one frame at each application and as it leaves the last frame it is finally dried and it is ready for fixation
In both machines the continuous rubber belt, after pulling away the fabric, is moved downward in continuous mode over a guide roller and washed with water and rotating brushes to remove the printing paste residues and the glue, if necessary. After this, the belt is sent back to the gluing device. In some cases the glue is applied in liquid form by a squeegee, while in other machines the belts are pre-coated with thermoplastic glues. In this case the textile is heated and then it is squeezed by a roller or simply pressed against the rubber-coated belt, causing the glue to soften and instantly adhere.
After printing, the screens and the application system are washed out. It is common practice to squeeze the color from the screens back into the printing paste mixing containers before washing them.
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